1 (5 points) Piaget’s concrete operational stage is characterized by thought that is related to the child’s motor activity logical and flexible abstract rigid and influenced by appearances 2 (5 points) The ability to mentally retrace steps of an operation is known as transductive reasoning animistic thinking inductive reasoning reversibility of thought 3 (5 points) Horizontal decalage refers to development through the four major Piagetian stages development within a stage the tendency to focus on width rather than height in conservation tasks children’s development of a skill across all content areas simultaneously 4 (5 points) In some cultures, children are accustomed to dividing their toys, treats, and drinks for equal distribution with each other. these children acquire conservation early at the same time as other children late with no evidence of horizontal decalage 5 (5 points) Grouping related items together is a memory strategy known as organization elaboration rehearsal listening 6 (5 points) Margaret shows exceptional talent in drawing and sculpting, able to recreate entire scenes and landscapes from memory. According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Margaret has particular strengths in _____ intelligence. linguistic logico-mathematical spacial bodily-kinesthetic 7 (5 points) A test that asks children to name as many uses of a brick as they can is tapping crystallized thinking simultaneous processing convergent thinking divergent thinking 8 (5 points) Kevinhas an above-average IQ, but struggles with reading. Kevin is probably just not trying hard enough in school has mental retardation has a learning disability has a behavior disorder 9 (5 points) Mainstreaming refers to placing pupils with learning difficulties into regular classrooms placing physically, but not mentally, disabled children in regular classrooms ability grouping placing all same-age students into regular classrooms regardless of type or severity of their problems 10 (5 points) Recent research indicates that American school teachers emphasize abstract thinking analysis and synthesis of new information applying ideas and concepts to real-life situations rote memory and repetitive drills 11 (5 points) A child who energetically pursues meaningful achievement in his or her culture is exhibiting coregulation inferiority industriousness perspective taking 12 (5 points) Theo’s grandmother wants to make sure he successfully resolves Erikson’s psychosocial conflict of middle childhood. She should give Theo opportunities to build trust in others learn to initiate conversations with girls become more empathic develop competence at useful skills 13 (5 points) Which of the following statements accurately reflects the change in self-description that typically occurs between ages 8 and 11? They emphasize competencies when describing themselves Children will describe positive, but not negative, traits Children tend to describe themselves by focusing on specific behaviors They are more likely to describe themselves in unrealistically positive ways 14 (5 points) George Herbert Mead described the self as Our image of who we would like to be A blend of what important people in our lives think of us A unique perception that has nothing to do with what others think Based on social comparisons 15 (5 points) According to Harter, self-esteem takes on a hierarchical structure by first grade all four separate self-esteems make equal contributions to general self-esteem academic competence weighs as much as the other three self-esteems combined physical appearance contributes most to general self-worth in middle childhood 16 (5 points) Compared to children in America, children in Japan and Taiwan score _____ in academic achievement and _____ in self-esteem lower; higher higher; lower higher; higher lower; lower 17 (5 points) Which statement about the self-esteem of American young people is true? American cultural values have de-emphasized a focus on self-esteem In spite of lower achievement and more adjustment problems, self-esteem has risen sharply Compared with previous generations, the self-esteem of American young people has dropped sharply Children benefit from compliments, even when they are not based upon real attainments 18 (5 points) Learned-helpless children do not develop the metacognitive skills necessary for high achievement are more likely to see the connection between effort and success attribute their failures to bad luck are more persistent than other children 19 (5 points) Attribution retraining is easily done with children of any age, no matter how low their self-esteem should be taught in middle childhood, before children’s views of themselves become hard to change is only effective if done during the preschool years is most effective with high schoo students who are able to think abstractly 20 (5 points) Emotional self-efficacy is the capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling a feeling of being in control of one’s emotional experience the ability to understand and respond sympathetically to the feelings of others the ability to resist an impulse to engage in socially disapproved of behavior
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