Arteries and veins are integral components for the cardiovascular system in the body. Their main function entails supplying blood through the body to different organs. This is crucial for the efficiency of the body. However, in some occasions, arteries and veins fail to function properly. This often results in cardiovascular diseases. Failure of veins and arteries breaks the channels for blood transportation in the body. Presence of some foreign substances inside veins and arteries can hinder the smooth flow of blood to different organs. This can cause diseases such as coronary heart syndrome. Coronary heart disease is one of the cardiovascular disorders. Reports from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute indicate that the disorder is one of the principal death factors in America. (Huether and McCance, 2012).
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In terms of pathophysiology, I have assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease. Arteries supply the heart with blood. Coronary artery disease happens when  there is  narrowing and hardening of coronary arteries. The disease occurs as a result of limitation of blood movement to the heart. This leads to the starvation of the heart cells because of inadequacy of oxygen. The process can also lead to dysfunction of heart muscles. This process may result to the constriction of the coronary artery and activation of the clotting system. This condition leads to coronary artery disease.

Coronary artery disease can arise as a result of diabetes mellitus, smoking and high blood pressure. The disease may arise due to a family history with association to the disease. The disease can be attributable to dietary habits. The screening of the disorder is through the examination of low-density and high-density cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels. The main risk of factors of coronary artery disease includes smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes may affect the heart muscles. This can lead to diastolic and systolic heart failure (Huether and McCance, 2012).

Some of the symptoms of coronary artery disease include narrowing and hardening of arteries, lodging of a clot (thrombus) in blood vessels, chest pains, shortness of breath, and weak fast pulses. Patients experience chest palpitations, nausea and vomiting as well as strong feeling of anxiety (Dokken, 2013).

I have selected age as one of the patient factors that may affect the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. The risk factor of coronary heart diseases increases three times with the advancement of age. This means that the process of arteries constriction advances progressively as people are aging. It then leads to arterial dysfunction that causes congestion of foreign substances in veins and arteries.

The symptoms of coronary artery disease are more severe in old age than during childhood and youth age. In addition, old age is a risk component for coronary artery disorders especially after the age of fifty-five years for women and forty-five years for men. This is due to younger women than fifty-five years having not yet gone through menopause. They have also high levels of estrogen hormone in their blood. On average scale, women develop cardiovascular diseases about 10 to 15 years later than men. Age can affect the severity of coronary artery disorders. Old age people tend to be more vulnerable to coronary artery disorders than young people. Unlike the elderly, young people undergo through intense activities that can delay arterial constriction (SCAI, 2013).

Hypertension can lead to coronary artery disease because it damages body organs slowly. When hypertension is uncontrolled, it may lead to coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease arises due to the congestion of fatty deposits on the walls of arteries around the heart. This makes the arteries narrower and restricts the flow of blood to the heart. Hypertension is one of the main causes of atherosclerosis that leads to coronary artery disease.

Finally, cardiovascular diseases manifest themselves in the variety of ways. However, coronary artery disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis are the most common types of disorders. In addition, as the age of individual increases, different physiological and morphological transformations in the body change the cardiovascular roles and lead to risks of cardiovascular disorders. Cardiovascular disorders lead to a lot of deaths around the globe.  It is essential to note that cardiovascular disorders affect older adults despite beginning in childhood. Therefore, it is important to take measures to prevent these disorders.
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References

Dokken, B. B. (2013). The pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: Beyond          blood pressure and lipids. Retrieved from spectrum.diabetesjournals.org:    Http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/21/3/160.full

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom).         St. Louis MO: Mosby.

The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. (2013). The faces of    cardiovascular diseases. Retrieved from scai.org:    http://www.scai.org/SecondsCount/Heart/WhoIsAffectedByCardiovascularDisease.as