Nursing and Health

December 14, 2017

What is the Truth?

No unread replies. No replies. The discussion in this module will be focused on the idea of truth. Determining the truth is paramount to determining the […]
December 14, 2017

good and bad manager.

1. Most of us have had the opportunity to work with a great manager. From your experience, please describe a manager that you view as a […]
December 14, 2017

Material?Requirements?Planning?

One?approach?that?has?been?used?in?the?past?for?material?planning?is?to?stock?all?items?at?all?times?(sometimes?called?just?in?case?inventory?control).?This?approach?requires?that?huge?inventories?be?maintained,?resulting?in?extensive?warehouse?space?and?a?large?amount?of?money?invested?in?that?inventory.?Even?then,?many?companies?found?that?certain?crucial?items?used?in?many?of?their?products?always?seemed?to?run?out?at?the?wrong?time.?No?matter?how?much?inventory?is?kept,?a?large?demand?for?certain?parts?can?deplete?supplies?quickly. Independent?Versus?Dependent?Demand Inventory?can?also?be?classified?according?to?the?type?of?demand?it?intends?to?serve.?The?type?of?demand?determines?which?methods?are?used?to?manage?inventory.?Independent?demand?is?demand?that?is?not?controlled?directly?by?the?company,?such?as?demand?from?customers.?Independent?demand?items?usually?include?finished?products,?such?as?the?completed?tricycle?or?replacement?parts?sold?to?customers.?Demand?for?such?items?is?generally?independent?of?a?company’s?production?plans.?Chapter?10?will?discuss?procedures?for?managing?this?type?of?inventory. ?iStockphoto/Thinkstock A?bill?of?materials?is?like?a?recipe,?listing?the?materials?needed?and?the?quantities?of?each.?It?also?provides?information?about?how?the?materials?combine?to?create?the?final?product. Dependent?demand?is?usually?demand?for?an?item?that?is?generated?by?a?company’s?production?process.?One?example?would?be?the?wheels?for?tricycles?that?a?company?produces.?Each?tricycle?has?three?wheels;?if?the?company?plans?to?produce?200?tricycles?in?a?given?week,?it?will?need?600?(200?��3)?wheels?that?week.?Thus,?the?demand?for?wheels?depends?on?the?production?of?tricycles.?To?manage?inventory?for?dependent?demand?items,?companies?often?use?material?requirements?planning?(MRP). The?idea?behind?MRP?is?simple;?it?is?like?planning?a?meal.?A?few?days?before?preparing?the?meal,?a?decision?is?made?about?what?to?serve.?The?person?who?will?prepare?the?meal?examines?the?recipe?to?determine?what?ingredients?are?required?to?make?the?meal,?checks?the?pantry?to?determine?which?ingredients?are?on?hand,?and?makes?a?list?of?the?ingredients?that?need?to?be?purchased.?A?trip?to?the?store?is?made?to?secure?items?that?are?not?currently?in?stock.?The?same?basic?approach?is?used?in?material?requirements?planning. The?master?schedule?is?analogous?to?the?menu,?which?states?what?will?be?served?for?the?meal.?Recall?that?the?master?schedule?indicates?which?items?and?how?many?of?each?item?to?produce.?A?bill?of?materials?is?like?the?list?of?ingredients?in?the?recipe,?which?tells?the?cook?the?amount?required?of?each.?The?bill?of?materials?(BOM)?lists?the?materials?needed?and?the?quantities?of?each.?Like?the?recipe,?it?also?provides?information?about?how?the?materials?come?together.?Inventory?records?will?show?how?much?is?on?hand.?From?this,?it?can?be?determined?which?parts?or?materials?will?come?up?short?and?how?much?more?of?each?item?is?needed. Data?Files?Used?by?MRP For?companies?today,?MRP?is?a?computerized?information?system.?As?such,?it?requires?data?to?provide?the?information?needed?for?decision?making.?The?three?most?important?data?requirements?of?MRP?are?the?master?production?schedule,?bill?of?materials,?and?inventory?records. ? Master?Schedule?File? For?MRP?purposes,?the?master?schedule?is?what?”drives”?the?system?and?generates?material?requirements.?As?mentioned?earlier,?this?master?schedule?may?be?at?the?finished-products?level?for?companies?such?as?Maine?Woods?that?manufacture?standard?products.?However,?for?companies?making?customized?products,?the?master?schedule?may?be?at?the?level?of?components?or?subassemblies. ? Bill?of?Materials?File A?bill?of?materials?serves?two?purposes.?First,?it?lists?all?the?components?of?a?product?and?the?quantities?needed?to?make?the?product.?Second,?it?shows?the?relationships?among?those?components,?which?indicates?product?structure,?or?how?the?items?fit?together.?For?example,?Figure?9.13?shows?an?exploded?view?of?the?tricycle?produced?by?Maine?Woods.?In?manufacturing?the?tricycle,?the?front?wheel,?its?supports,?the?axle,?and?the?steering?column?are?sub-assembled?before?the?entire?tricycle?is?put?together.?Likewise,?the?seat?and?rear?axle?supports?are?sub-assembled?before?final?assembly. One?way?to?indicate?these?subassemblies?is?through?a?product?structure?tree?diagram,?as?shown?in?Figure?9.14.?Notice?that?all?the?parts?brought?together?at?final?assembly?are?listed?together?on?level?1.?Any?parts?that?are?components?of?subassemblies?are?listed?on?level?2.?Connecting?lines?indicate?which?parts?belong?to?which?subassembly. Figure?9.13:?Exploded?view?of?Maine?Woods’?tricycle One?way?to?indicate?these?subassemblies?is?through?a?product?structure?tree?diagram,?as?shown?in?Figure?9.14.?Notice?that?all?the?parts?brought?together?at?final?assembly?are?listed?together?on?level?1.?Any?parts?that?are?components?of?subassemblies?are?listed?on?level?2.?Connecting?lines?indicate?which?parts?belong?to?which?subassembly. Figure?9.14:?Product?structure?tree?for?Maine?Woods’?tricycle An?indented?bill?of?materials?is?another?way?to?provide?structure?to?the?bill?of?materials.?A?tree?diagram?is?visually?appealing,?but?is?difficult?to?use?in?computerized?MRP?systems.?An?indented?bill?of?materials?is?used?by?MRP?to?provide?information?about?product?structure.?Each?item?is?identified?with?a?level,?as?shown?in?Figure?9.14.?An?indented?bill?of?materials?illustrates?each?level?indented?from?the?one?above?it.?Table?9.2?is?the?indented?bill?of?materials?for?Maine?Woods’?tricycle. Table?9.2:?Indented?bill?of?materials?for?Maine?Woods’?tricycle Level Part?no. Quantity Description […]
December 14, 2017

Standard Operating Guideline

Background Information: You have just been promoted to the rank of lieutenant (or bureau manager if serving in the private sector) and have been appointed to […]
December 14, 2017

Extensions?of?MRP?

The?discussion?of?MRP?thus?far?has?focused?on?the?basics,?often?referred?to?as?”little?MRP.”?It?is?important?to?understand?how?MRP?can?be?extended?to?make?it?more?useful?and?applicable?to?areas?of?the?business?beyond?operations. Capacity?Requirements?Planning As?mentioned?previously,?the?master?schedule?is?developed?from?the?aggregate?plan.?Thus,?the?master?schedule?can?provide?much?more?exact?measures?of?the?capacity?requirements?than?the?aggregate?plan?can.?As?the?master?schedule?is?developed,?rough-cut?capacity?planning?is?used?to?check?capacity?requirements?against?capacity?availability.?Rough-cut?capacity?planning?does?not?take?into?account?lead-time?offsetting,?or?the?amount?ahead?of?time?that?component?parts?must?be?made?to?meet?the?master?schedule?for?end?items.?MRP?can?form?the?basis?for?much?more?detailed?capacity?calculations?because?MRP?performs?lead-time?offsetting?when?it?generates?planned?order?releases.?For?parts?made?in-house,?the?planned?order?releases?generated?by?MRP?indicate?exactly?when?certain?parts?must?be?made?and?in?what?quantity.?Those?planned?order?releases?will?initiate?a?series?of?production?requirements?on?the?machines?and?equipment?used?to?produce?those?parts?and?subassemblies.?These?demands?consume?a?portion?of?capacity?of?the?machines?and?equipment.?Using?a?routing?sheet,?which?indicates?the?sequence?of?machines?or?work?centers?through?which?a?part?must?pass?during?processing?and?the?labor?standards,?it?is?possible?to?determine?capacity?requirements?at?each?operation. Figure?9.21?shows?planned?order?releases?for?tricycle?axle?supports,?along?with?information?contained?in?the?routing?sheet?for?that?part.?In?each?week,?the?run?time?on?each?machine?is?multiplied?by?the?order?quantity?for?that?week?and?then?added?to?set-up?time?to?get?capacity?requirements.?This?procedure?is?done?for?each?work?center?and?each?week. Figure?9.21:?Capacity?requirements?planning?for?tricycle?axle?supports The?information?generated?in?Figure?9.21?is?only?for?one?part.?Many?other?parts?would?also?generate?capacity?requirements?at?the?same?work?centers.?By?adding?together?all?the?capacity?requirements?for?each?work?center?in?each?week,?a?total?figure?for?capacity?requirements?will?be?generated.?The?total?capacity?requirements?placed?on?a?work?center?during?a?given?time?period?are?called?the?load.?The?output?of?capacityrequirements?planning?(CRP)?is?usually?in?the?form?of?a?load?report,?or?load?profile,?which?is?a?graphical?representation?of?the?load?on?each?work?center?by?time?period.?An?example?of?a?load?report?is?shown?in?Figure?9.22. Figure?9.22:?Drill?work?center?load?report Closed-Loop?MRP Capacity?requirements?planning?is?of?significant?benefit?in?ensuring?that?a?company’s?plans?are?realistic?and?can?be?implemented.?However,?MRP?can?only?project?what?should?happen?if?demand?is?as?forecasted?on?the?master?production?schedule.?In?reality,?machines?may?break?down,?deliveries?from?suppliers?may?be?delayed,?or?some?other?calamity?may?occur.?If?these?events?are?not?reflected?back?in?the?MRP?plan,?then?that?plan?will?be?invalid. Closed-loop?MRP?provides?feedback?about?the?execution?of?production?plans.?By?tracking?what?actually?happens?on?the?shop?floor?and?then?reflecting?that?information?in?the?MRP?record,?plans?can?be?kept?valid.?Instead?of?”launching”?orders?with?no?information?about?completion,?closed-loop?MRP?provides?the?feedback?loop?necessary?to?keep?information?up?to?date. Manufacturing?Resource?Planning?(MRP?II) Many?companies?have?found?that?material?requirements?planning?can?greatly?improve?their?operations?through?better?planning.?MRP?also?forces?companies?to?better?coordinate?the?activities?of?operations,?marketing,?and?purchasing.?The?master?schedule?will?have?implications?for?finance,?personnel,?workforce?requirements,?and?purchases?of?materials.?A?company?must?be?sure?that?its?operations?plan?fits?appropriately?with?the?business?plan.?All?functional?areas?must?base?their?activities?on?the?plan.?To?do?that,?an?extension?of?MRP?has?been?developed?called?manufacturing?resource?planning. Manufacturing?resource?planning,?or?MRP?II,?as?it?is?commonly?called?to?differentiate?it?from?material?requirements?planning?(MRP),?is?a?way?of?tying?all?parts?of?an?organization?together?to?build?on?the?strategic?plan.?The?strategic?plan?is?an?overall?blueprint?that?specifies?the?company’s?objectives?and?how?it?plans?to?reach?them.?The?operations?function?will?develop?its?own?goals?and?plans?to?help?achieve?the?corporate?objective,?as?will?the?marketing,?finance,?and?all?other?departments?of?the?organization.?The?actions?of?one?functional?area,?however,?will?have?an?impact?on?the?other?areas.?For?instance,?if?marketing?plans?a?promotional?effort?that?will?greatly?increase?sales,?then?operations?must?be?ready?and?able?to?produce?enough?product?to?meet?that?increased?demand.?Hiring?more?employees?or?buying?additional?equipment,?which?will,?in?turn,?have?a?major?impact?on?the?financial?area,?may?be?necessary.?Because?the?operations?activity?is?such?an?integral?part?of?any?organization,?it?can?be?especially?vulnerable?to?the?actions?taken?by?other?departments,?and?will?have?a?large?influence?on?other?areas?of?the?company?through?its?actions. Planned?orders?can?also?provide?information?about?expected?expenditures.?Purchase?order?releases?can?be?used?to?estimate?future?payments?to?suppliers.?Shop?order?releases?will?generate?needs?for?machine?time?and?labor,?so?that?they?can?also?be?used?to?estimate?future?expenses.?Before?the?development?of?MRP?II,?companies?used?cost?accounting?primarily?as?a?way?to?determine?success?after?the?fact.?It?was?a?way?to?find?out?what?it?had?cost?to?do?what?was?already?done. MRP?II?can?change?the?way?companies?operate.?By?generating?cost?projections,?it?is?possible?to?plan?for?production?costs?ahead?of?time?and?then?compare?actual?costs?to?these?projections.?Any?major?deviations?can?be?spotted?and?investigated.?A?related?advantage?with?MRP?II?is?that?it?can?be?used?to?answer?what-if?types?of?questions.?Using?MRP?II,?a?company?can?estimate?the?effect?of?a?supplier?cost?increase?and?develop?strategies?to?address?it,?instead?of?trying?to?respond?after?the?fact.?Figure?9.23?shows?how?MRP?II?connects?all?parts?of?the?organization. Figure?9.23:?MRP?II MRP?in?Service?Organizations Although?MRP?was?originally?developed?for?manufacturing?companies,?it?can?also?be?applied?to?service?organizations.?Instead?of?the?master?schedule?representing?goods?to?be?produced,?it?can?represent?services?to?be?provided. For?example,?an?airline’s?master?schedule?could?show?the?number?of?flights?from?different?cities?each?week.?In?this?case,?the?materials?required?to?provide?that?service?include?fuel?for?the?airplanes,?meals?for?the?passengers,?and?other?related?items.?Likewise,?hospitals?can?develop?a?master?schedule?showing?the?number?of?different?types?of?surgeries?each?week. ?iStockphoto/Thinkstock When?airlines?create?a?master?schedule?they?also?compile?a?list?of?materials?needed?to?provide?that?service?such?as?fuel?for?the?airplanes?and?snacks?for?the?passengers. Materials?required?include?various?surgical?supplies.?This?is?a?variant?of?MRP,?known?as?hospital?requirements?planning?(HRP). Although?some?surgeries?are?emergencies,?many?others?are?scheduled?in?advance.?Historical?information?about?emergency?surgeries?can?be?combined?with?those?that?are?scheduled?to?develop?a?master?schedule.?MRP?can?then?be?used?to?convert?the?master?schedule?into?requirements?for?medical?equipment,?instruments,?supplies,?operating?rooms,?and?staff.?Houston’s?Park?Plaza?Hospital?has?used?this?approach?to?improve?management?of?expensive?inventory. Distribution?Requirements?Planning?(DRP) In?the?retail?setting,?the?MRP?approach?has?been?applied?so?widely?that?a?variant?of?MRP,?called?distribution?requirements?planning(DRP),?has?been?developed.?In?this?way,?the?MRP?planning?logic?is?applied?to?requirements?for?retail?outlets?or?warehouses. Distribution?networks?often?consist?of?local?outlets?or?service?centers?that?are?supplied?from?local?distribution?centers.?In?turn,?these?distribution?centers?may?be?fed?by?a?regional?or?national?warehouse.?By?thinking?of?each?level?in?the?distribution?network?as?a?level?in?a?bill?of?materials,?it?is?possible?to?see?that?orders?placed?by?the?service?centers?will?generate?gross?requirements?at?the?regional?warehouses.?Figure?9.24?shows?an?example?of?distribution?requirements?planning. […]
December 14, 2017

course or curriculum

he Curriculum Process The Discussions in this course include several components. You may not be able to address all of these questions in a single post. […]
December 14, 2017

Mixed method approach

The popularity of mixed methods approaches in evaluation has increased significantly over the last decade, although there is still some controversy regarding these approaches. The mixed […]
December 14, 2017

agricultural pesticides

Atrazine is one of the most widely used agricultural pesticides in the U.S. that may be applied before and after planting to control broadleaf and grassy […]
December 14, 2017

Global Business Plan

Resources: TABLE 8.1 on page 139 of Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Ch. 8 and the organization you selected in the Week 2 Individual Assignment Write a […]
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