How does Kant distinguish between hypothetical and categorical imperatives, and how is the distinction relevant to morality? (128) Why does Rachels say that categorical imperatives are “mysterious” (p. 129)?
Question 11: What does Rachels consider to be the “basic idea underlying the Categorical Imperative” (p. 134), and why does he think it is worth preserving despite its logical and practical difficulties? Why does Rachels think that Kant went one step too far in making this “basic idea” the foundation of all morality? Explain your answers. (133-5, see also pp. 10, 41)
Study Questions 10
Question 6: Explain why Kant thinks the utilitarian theory of punishment is “incompatible with human dignity” (p. 142).
Question 9: Comment on whether you agree with Kant that morality demands no less (and no more) than the punishment of the wrongdoer in proportion to his or her crime, or whether you agree with Bentham that society should employ alternative methods of reducing crime that do not involve the deliberate infliction of suffering.
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