What types of differences exist between men and women in negotiation?
Male attorneys and business people occasionally make the mistake of if their female opponents will not engage in as many negotiating games as their male adversaries. Even many women erroneously assume that other females are unlikely to employ the Machiavellian tactics stereotypically associated with members of the competitive male culture. Men and women who expect their female adversaries to behave less competitively and more cooperatively often ignore the realities of their negotiation encounters and give a significant bargaining advantage to women who are willing to employ manipulative tactics. Some male negotiators attempt to obtain a psychological advantage against aggressive female bar gainers by casting aspersions on the femininity of those individuals. They hope to 5 embarrass those participants and make them feel self-conscious with respect to the approach they are using. Female negotiators should never allow adversaries to employ this tactic. They have the right to use any techniques they think appropriate, regardless of the stereotypes those tactics may contradict. To male opponents who raise specious objections to their otherwise proper conduct, they should reply that they do not wish to be viewed as ladies, but merely as participants in bargaining encounters in which their gender should be irrelevant. Female negotiators who discover that gender-based stereotypes are negatively affecting their bargaining interactions may wish to directly raise the issue to diminish the impact of negative stereotyping. They may ask opponents if they find it difficult to negotiate against female adversaries. While most male opponents will immediately deny any such beliefs, they are likely to internally revaluate their treatment of female opponents. Once both parties acknowledge, internally or externally, the possible impact of stereotypical beliefs, they can try to avoid group generalizations and focus on the individuals with whom they must currently interact. This difference would probably cause males to feel more comfortable than women when they employ deceptive behaviour during bargaining encounters to advance their own interests, because such conduct would be of a self-oriented nature.
Males tend to exude more confidence than women in performance-oriented settings. Even when minimally prepared, men think they can wing it and get through successfully. On the other hand, no matter how thoroughly prepared women are, they tend to feel unprepared. I have often observed this difference among my Legal Negotiation students. Successful males think they can achieve beneficial results in future settings, while successful females continue to express doubts about their own capabilities. I find this frustrating, because the accomplished women are as proficient as their accomplished male cohorts.
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