You are the senior civilian advisor to the emergency response manager (ERM). The ERM realizes that the psychological impact of a mass-casualty incident (MCI) can be devastating. The ERM is prepared to handle the incident response with emergency personnel and equipment, but he is unsure if the city is prepared for the psychological aftermath. As his senior advisor, you have been asked to generate a white paper study of past MCIs and their psychological impact.
The ERM wants the white paper to include 1 terrorist MCI and 1 natural MCI. You are to choose 1 from each category below:
Terrorist MCIs Natural MCIs
Sarin Gas Attack, Japan (1995) Hurricane Katrina, United States (2005)
Oklahoma City Bombing, United States (1995) Tsunami, Indian Ocean (2004)
Madrid Train Bombings, Spain (2004) Flooding, Pakistan (2010)
Bali Nightclub Bombings, Indonesia (2002) Galtür Avalanche, Austria (1999)
Address the following in 900–1,200 words:
For each of the selected mass-casualty incidents, discuss the following:
Provide a detailed overview of the incident.
What was the number of victims killed and wounded?
What psychological symptoms are exhibited by direct attack victims?
If one is available, include a diagnosis.
What psychological symptoms are exhibited by indirect victims, such as family members, friends, and coworkers of the direct victims?
What immediate and long-term treatment plans exist for the victims?
Remember to fully support your arguments with scholarly resources.
Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.