Alexander, Jeffrey C. The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim (Theoretical Logic in Sociology). Vol. 2. Routledge, 2014. Print

Jeffrey C. Alexander takes an in-depth look at the theoretical aspects of social stratification and social order, its history and how it augmented to a level where it divides society. He utilizes the foundations and precepts of Philosophers Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim to depict the adverse effects of racism in medieval Europe.


Feagin, Joe. Systemic racism: A theory of oppression. Routledge, 2013. Print

Dr. Joe Feagin takes a retrospective approach to racism in America and Europe and how it manifested into social vile in society today. Feagin, claims that society ills like racism or social stratification is as a result of a few individuals who want pursue vested interests in society and as result exploit the underprivileged giving rise to disparities as result of race and ethnicity.


Hockenos, Paul. Free to hate: The rise of the right in post-communist Eastern Europe. Routledge, 2013. Print

Paul Hockenos gives a special look at post-colonial Eastern Europe racism, focusing on the history of racism Nazi revolution and the impact of Hitler’s rule to Germans. Hockenos attributes racism to political and social construction of the society which is as a result of inept leadership qualities and push for particular ideologies that espouse racism against the dissent.


Solomos, John. “Sociology of Race, Racism and Ethnicity: Trends, Debates and Research Agendas.” The Palgrave Handbook of Sociology in Britain. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014. 396-412. Print

This is the main article used for the paper it takes a contextual view and standpoint of society and how racial stratification divides society in the contemporary world. Looking at prevailing political, economic and social aspects that have created social disparities that divide the society in racial realms; the book looks at recent agendas around the world and debates on the discourse of race and racism


Schröter, Melani. “80,000,000 HOOLIGANS: Discourse of resistance to racism and xenophobia in German punk lyrics 1991–1994.” Critical Discourse Studies 12.4 (2015): 398-425. Print

Melani Schröter depicts the racial disparities for foreigners in historic Germany through songs produced by punk bands produced between 1991 and 1994 which condemn the racist attributes to foreigners in Germany. This article is particularly important as it focuses on the broad scope of the film “Morris from America” which is about racism experienced by foreigners in Germany this is one of the main excerpts utilized in the article.

Non Scholarly

Forbes online Library

Forbes online library provides an assortment of multimedia/video information on the subject of racism form history and in today’s society. The repository on racism is quite vast depicting how the vice has changed society, in schools, resource allocation, politics, family and society at large.

Is an online site with information about racism in general; in essence it gives the history, etymology, legal, social, economic. Behavioral, cultural, institutional aspects of racism in broad; the contributions are from many authors around the world who have pertinent ideas on the subject matter.

Depicts a definitive inquiry on race, staged by psychologists as an experiment, it involves posing of two photographs that fashioned an astounding reaction. Where people were shown a photograph of two white men fighting, one unarmed and another holding a knife followed by another picture of a Caucasian man with a knife fighting an unarmed African-American man. The picture depicted the bigotry exemplified by people when it comes to the colour of skin.


Morris From America, Hartigan Chad. A24, 2016. Film

Is a refreshing film exemplifying of an African-American teenager trying to adapt restlessly to a new life in Heidelberg, Germany. Set in the backdrop of contemporary Europe setting, Morris’s experience of being young, black and misconstrued person can worsen in an unfamiliar setting. Morris has to put up with all manner of racist antics leveled towards him, from the overly hostile society, that he is compelled to contend with and adapt to.


Racism: A History, Tickell Paul, BBC, 2007. Documentary

The documentary marks the 200th centenary celebration of the Slave Trade Act 1807, a momentous section of regulation which obliterated the slave trade in the British Empire. The series explores the influence of discrimination on a worldwide scale and records the changes in the awareness of race and the account of racism in the Americas, Europe, Asia and Australia