Interaction between macrophages and T lymphocytes
In human beings, Antigen presentation involves the act in which lymphocytes are presented with short peptide fragments of antigen protein. This process occurs at the surface of the antigen-presenting cell or a macrophage. In this scenario, Mellissa’s body is presented with inflammatory processes that aid in providing defense against mononucleosis. Immune cells available in the blood fight the microbes and repairs the damaged tissues. T lymphocytes and the macrophages are the main cells that are used in this context. The T cells are designed in such a way that they are able to detect the molecules of various proteins found in bacteria and aims at activating immune responses. On the other side, Macrophages perform the act of eating other cells and separating proteins which later presents them to the T cells.
The interaction between these two immune cells happens for the purposes of bringing T cell activation to the target organs. Afterward, the immune cells are activated by cytokines that are being produced by the T cells. Toxic chemicals that involve the nitric oxide are produced by the Microphages and they end up killing the cells which surround them. According to (Khera, et al, 2012), when macrophages are stimulated by the T cells, there should be consecutive production of an inflammatory cytokine. This cytokine acts as a signal for telling the macrophages to produce more nitric oxide (Raveney,et al, 2010). Modulating this context is used in destroying microorganisms available in Mellissa’s body. Also, chemicals that are secreted in the cells, as well as interaction between the cell surfaces, are other signals which give controls on the results of interaction between the macrophages and the T lymphocytes. During antigen presentation, this interaction between the macrophages and the T cells is so dynamic since the macrophages are needed to activate as many T cells as possible for the successful delivery of cytokines.
After the doctor examined and discovered that Melissa’s illness was a result of viral infection, he proposed that type I interferon could work appropriately to curb the viral infection. Type I interferon are among the largest family of protein in the body. According to (Johansson, 2016) the type I interferon is usually made and released by the cells so that they can fight with the existing viruses. In the case of Melissa, the cells that are attacked by the virus will release interferon to the surrounding cells so as to increase their anti-virus defense mechanism thereby prevents further infections. Usually, interferon cannot be released without proper communication between cells. This inter-cell communication is facilitated by cytokines which prepare the defense mechanism of the body to eliminate any pathogen that might be preparing to attack body cells. Type I interferon works by preventing viral replication in the body thereby preventing the spread of viruses in the cells. The type I interferon also play other roles apart from preventing the spread of viral infection. The type I interferon activates immune cells such as the macrophage and natural killer cells. The production of Type I interferon is induced by Toll-like receptors 7 and Toll-like receptor 9.
When type I interferon is induced at both chronic and acute stages of viral infection, it responds by ensuring restoration of body immunity. The research done indicate that using type I interferon to shape body immunity, gives rise to both positive and negative consequences. The positive part is the type I interferon contribute to expansion of T cells while on the other hand the disadvantage side is that it may prevent proliferation of T cells. Low concentration of Type I interferon is an indication that there is viral infection and thus induce antivirus gene. Relatively high concentration indicate that a certain cell is invaded by virus.
Role of Antibodies in the immune response
According to (GuhaThakurta, et al., 2015) B cells play a major role in the humoral immune response. They are formed after the body discovers the existence of a given epitope. The B cells are the antigen-presenting cells. Concerning the production of B cell, they are produced in born marrow but when it comes to their development they undergo several stages. B cell activation is usually the differentiation clonal expansion of this cell. Therefore, when there is matching between the B cell receptor and the antigen in the body then the B cell responds by producing antibodies receptors with binding sites similar to those on the original cell surface. Those B cells that have not encountered with antigen before are activated by a T cell-dependent or independent way.
The antibodies are produced by the B cell and the resemble letter Y and their function is to identify and eliminate any existing antigen in the body. Each tip of the Y shaped antibody contains a Paratope which is specific for a given epitope. The antibody employs a biding mechanism to fight with antigen. The majority of the antibodies exist as monomers and a few will exist as dimer.
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Johansson, C. (2016). Respiratory syncytial virus infection: an innate perspective. F1000Research, 5.
Khera, T., Copland, D., Boldison, J., Lait, P., Szymkowski, D., Dick, A., & Nicholson, L. (2011). TNF-mediated macrophage activation in the target organ is critical for clinical manifestation of uveitis: 70. Immunology, 135.
Raveney, B. J., Copland, D. A., Calder, C. J., Dick, A. D., & Nicholson, L. B. (2010). TNFR1 signaling is a critical checkpoint for developing macrophages that control of T‐cell proliferation. Immunology, 131(3), 340-349.